Balkan Medical Journal
Original Articles

Effects of Oral pH Changes on Smoking Desire


Department of Chest Diseases, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey


Department of Oral and Dental Health, Dokuz Eylül University Vocational School of Health Services, İzmir, Turkey


Department of Chest Diseases, Dokuz Eylül University, School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

Balkan Medical Journal 2021; 38: 165-170
DOI: 10.5152/balkanmedj.2021.20125
Read: 262 Downloads: 69 Published: 31 May 2021

Background: Nicotine addiction is associated with nicotine absorption from the buccal mucosa, and it is stated that the main factor that determines nicotine absorption is saliva pH. In the literature, the effects
of changes in saliva pH values after eating and drinking on smoking desire in smokers were not questioned.

Aim: To show the effect of saliva pH changes on smoking desire. The secondary aim was to show the impact of coffee and water drinking on saliva pH and smoking on oral-dental health (oral hygiene and gingival bleeding).

Study Design: Case–control study.

Methods: A questionnaire was administered that included “Sociodemographic Data Form” and smoking history and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Oral and dental examinations were
performed with mirror sonds and using oral hygiene standard Silness and Leöe plaque index and DMFT Index (Index of Decayed Missing or Filled Teeth). Untreated saliva samples were taken, and baseline saliva flow rate and pH values were measured. To assess pH changes, saliva pH was remeasured after sugar-free instant coffee and water consumption. Smoking desire was evaluated with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS).

Results: In this study, 24 (55.8%) females and 19 (44.2%) males were among the 43 smoking and 39 nonsmoking cases. Smoking was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene (in smokers 4.71 (±1.40), in
non-smokers 2.30 (±1.59); P < .01). DMFT index was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (in smokers 6.45 (±3.69), in non-smokers 3.87 (±2.67); P < .01). Gingival bleeding was more prevalent in smokers (0.68 (±0.76)) than non-smokers (1.20 (±0.90); P = .009). Salivary flow rates were lower in smokers (in smokers 2.56 (±1.34), in non-smokers 3.00 (±1.22), P = .06). In both groups, pH values increased after coffee
consumption and decreased after water; in smokers basal: 6.67 (±0.41), pH coffee: 6.93 (±0.36), pH water: 6.85 (±0.33); in non-smokers pH basal: 6.84 (±0.37), pH coffee: 7.02 (±0.37), pH water: 6.97 (±0.31), P < .01. The VAS values of smokers at basal 4.73 (±3.21); P < 0.01, after coffee consumption 4.91 (±3.08); P < .01, and after water 3.15 (±2.72); P < .01.

Conclusion: The saliva pH increased after coffee consumption and decreased after drinking water. Besides, VAS values decreased significantly after drinking water. The results suggest that a simple behavior such as drinking water may be used in conjunction with behavioral and cognitive therapies to pursue smoking cessation.

Cite this article as: Ömeroğlu Şimşek G, Kılınç G, Ergan B, Kılınç O. Effects of oral pH changes on smoking desire. Balkan Med J. 2021; 38(3):165-170.

ISSN 2146-3123 EISSN 2146-3131