ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In a study from Denmark, total 2224 overweight individuals (1504 women, 720 men) followed a low-calorie diet (810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks. The low-calorie diet induced different effects in women than in men, suggesting gender‐specific changes after weight loss. Body weight loss and reductions in a metabolic syndrome score, fat mass, and heart rate were more marked in men compared to women. However, reductions in HDL-cholesterol, hip circumference, lean body mass (or fat free mass), and pulse pressure were larger in women than in men. Source:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dom.13466
Louisa Gibson and Melanie Porter from Australiaaimed to investigate whether drinking or smoking while breastfeeding lowers children’s cognitive scores. They analyzed the data obtained from 5107 Australian infants recruited in 2004 and assessed every 2 years. The authors observed that exposing infants to alcohol through breastmilk may cause dose-dependent reductions in their cognitive abilities. The reduction in cognitive abilities was observed at age 6 to 7 years but was not sustained at age 10 to 11 years. The authors stated that although the relationship is small, it may be clinically significant when mothers consume alcohol regularly or binge drink.  Source: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/142/2/e20174266
According to a meta-analysis performed by Clarke MA et al. 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. The authors analyzed data from 40790 unique patients in 129 studies published January 1, 1977, through January 31, 2017. They found that 90% of women with endometrial cancerhave postmenopausal bleeding; however, only 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding were diagnosed with endometrial cancer.  Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2695509
In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/3/e018895
In a case-control study in older adults, it was observed a robust association between exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence.  The researchers used a large UK primary care database, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and matched 40,770 older adults with a diagnosis of dementia to 283,933 controls without dementia. Until dementia diagnosis (4 to 20 years), an anticholinergic drug with a high anticholinergic burden (e.g., amitriptyline, paroxetine) were prescribed in 36% of cases and 30% of controls. It was found that increasing exposure to highly anticholinergic drugs was associated with increased dementia risk. The risk was highest with antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs, and urologic drugs. The researchers concluded that "Clinicians should continue to be vigilant with respect to the use of anticholinergic drugs, and should consider the risk of long term cognitive effects, as well as short term effects, associated with specific drug classes when performing their risk-benefit analysis." Source:  https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1315
In a prospective study conducted on 104,980 participants aged at least 18 years from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2017), a significant increase in overall and breast cancer was associated with an increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet. Source: http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322.long

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Ifeyinwa Emmanuela Obiorah, Alicia Henao Velasquez, Metin Özdemirli
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a fibroinflammatory systemic disease that is characterized by focal or diffuse organ infiltration by immunoglobulin G4-bearing plasma cells. Advances in the understanding of immunoglobulin G4-related disease are likely to change the diagnostic approach in the future and create potential targets for therapeutic purposes. This study can guide clinicians in early diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgical resections.
Mustafa Serinken, Cenker Eken, Özgür Karcıoğlu
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common acute pain disorders, affects about 40% to 70% of women of reproductive age, and is a frequent cause that leads to time lost from work or school besides interfering with daily living. Randomized controlled trials showed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective options for relieving primary dysmenorrhea. In a systematic review of 73 randomized trials, NSAIDs were significantly more effective than placebo or paracetamol. However, there is no randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of paracetamol and dexketoprofen as treatment options in patients presenting to the emergency department for pain relief because of primary dysmenorrhea.
Hui Wan, Tie-Yong Qian, Xiao-Jing Hu, et al.
The hallmark of postmenopausal osteoporosis is rapidly deteriorating bone volume experienced during the postmenopausal period. This condition is emerging as a significant metabolic bone disease, given the global demographic shift toward an increasingly aged society. Studies estimate that nearly 200 million people around the world suffer from osteoporosis, with approximately 8.9 million people experiencing osteoporotic fractures. Recently, biochemical markers involved in increased bone turnover have been proposed as potential indicators of the degree of severity of bone resorption.
Gözde Yeşil, Ayşe Aralaşmak, Enes Akyüz, et al.
The KCNMA1 gene encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage, and calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BK channels) that plays a critical role in neuronal excitability. Here, the case of a patient with a novel homozygous truncating mutation in KCNMA1 (p.Arg458Ter) presenting with both the loss- and gain-of-function phenotype with paroxysmal dyskinesia, epilepsy, intellectual delay, and corticospinal–cerebellar tract atrophy was reported.
Emine Özlem Gür, Serkan Karaisli, Akif Serhat Gür, et al.
Nipple discharge is a complaint of approximately 5% of women. Pathologic nipple discharge is defined as unilateral, spontaneous discharge from a single duct during the nonlactational period. Patients with pathologic nipple discharge should be evaluated to rule out malignancy. Polypropylene suture guided microdochectomy does not require additional duct-specific imaging methods to determine and resect the pathologic discharging duct and is an inexpensive, useful, easy, and reliable method to treat patients with pathologic nipple discharge or bloody nipple discharge who have no pathological findings on the imaging techniques.

News from Balkan Medical Journal See All

We, Editorial team of Balkan Medical Journal, are happy to announce the new policy (Sex/gender reporting) for Balkan Medical Journal (Kocak Z). As a result of this accepted policy, we decided to follow the SAGER guide (SAGER guideline). Authors are strongly recommended to use the terms sex (for reporting biological factors) and gender (for reporting identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors) correctly. We encourage all authors to analyze and report sex/gender differences in their research, where appropriate. Editors of Balkan Medical Journal are thrilled to be part of global efforts to improve the reporting and evaluation of sex and gender differences in scientific research. We hope that our editors, reviewers and authors will quickly adopt this guide and contribute to a better science and health outcome.
The 14th EASE Conference was held in Bucharest, Romania, 8-10 June, 2018 in partnership with the University of Bucharest. The theme for the event was “Balancing Innovation and Tradition in Science Editing”. There were 140 participants from all over the World. Twenty-one editors attended this conference from Turkey. Balkan Medical Journal was represented by ten editors. Three presentations were made by Balkan Medical Journal Editors. Professor Uzun made two speeches titled “Editing small scientific journals in local, regional, or English languages: Experience of Trakya University Journals” and “Improving your journal: teamwork experience of a small medical journal”. Prof Erdag made a speech under the title of “The pros and cons of bilingual publication”. Six of twelve posters presented at the conference were from Trakya University. The Balkan Medical Journal was represented on two posters of Professor Koçak and Professor Uzun; “Assessment of scientific indicators of general medicine journals in the Balkan Region”(Zafer Kocak & Necdet Sut) and “Can individual back-translation with or without copyediting avoid technical plagiarism? A study with Turkish medical authors”(Cem Uzun, Ozgur Gunduz, and Necdet Sut).  The other good news was that the best medical category poster award went to Kadri Kiran from Trakya University (“Compliance analysis of journals published by Trakya University with principles of transparency and best practice in scholarly publishing”). We believe that participation in this EASE conference contributed to international cooperation between the Balkan editors and the journals.