ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/3/e018895
In a case-control study in older adults, it was observed a robust association between exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence.  The researchers used a large UK primary care database, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and matched 40,770 older adults with a diagnosis of dementia to 283,933 controls without dementia. Until dementia diagnosis (4 to 20 years), an anticholinergic drug with a high anticholinergic burden (e.g., amitriptyline, paroxetine) were prescribed in 36% of cases and 30% of controls. It was found that increasing exposure to highly anticholinergic drugs was associated with increased dementia risk. The risk was highest with antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs, and urologic drugs. The researchers concluded that "Clinicians should continue to be vigilant with respect to the use of anticholinergic drugs, and should consider the risk of long term cognitive effects, as well as short term effects, associated with specific drug classes when performing their risk-benefit analysis." Source:  https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1315
In a prospective study conducted on 104,980 participants aged at least 18 years from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2017), a significant increase in overall and breast cancer was associated with an increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet. Source: http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322.long
The 14th EASE Conference will be held in Bucharest, Romania, 8th-10th June, 2018, in partnership with the University of Bucharest. The theme for the event will be ‘Balancing Innovation and Tradition in Science Editing‘. For details please visit EASE website.
In a multicenter, community-based 30-year prospective cohort study in US, 1238 women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study of young black and white women ages 18 to 30 years without diabetes at baseline were screened for diabetes up to 7 times during 30 years after baseline (1986-2016). The study indicated a strong, graded inverse association of lactation duration with diabetes incidence. Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2668634?redirect=true
American Society of Breast Surgeons 1. Don’t routinely excise areas of psuedoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast in patients who are not having symptoms from it. 2. Don’t routinely surgically excise biopsy proven broadenomas that are smaller than 2 centimeters in size. 3. Don’t routinely operate for a breast abscess without an initial attempt to percutaneously aspirate or drain it. 4. Don’t perform screening mammography in asymptomatic patients with normal exams who have less than 5-year life expectancy. 5. Don’t routinely drain non-painful fluid-filled breast cysts.   Source: https://www.astro.org/uploadedFiles/Main_Site/News_and_Media/News_Releases/2013/ASTRO%20ChoosingWisely%20List_FINAL_092313.pdf

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Şifa Turan, Özhan M. Turan
Ductus venosus (DV) assessment gives valuable information under different fetal conditions. Fetal conditions that are affected by cardiovascular deterioration must be assessed with DV Doppler examination. This assessment not only assists in directing management but also helps to predict the perinatal outcome. Detailed evaluation of forward cardiac function using velocity ratios is used to clarify the underlying cardiovascular pathology. The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions importantly in the transfer of oxygen-and nutrient-rich blood from the umbilical vein to vital organs. Its control under active regulation and its anatomy result in a flow-velocity profile that is typically forward throughout the cardiac cycle. This forward cardiac function reflects afterload, cardiac contractility, compliance, and vascular volume changes. Ductus venosus assessment gives valuable information under different fetal conditions. For example, during first trimester screening, an abnormal ductus venosus measurement changes the screening result. Assessment of ductus venosus in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is an essential element of staging. In fetal growth restriction, an abnormal waveform mandates imminent delivery. In this review, we will discuss the role of ductus venosus assessment and its role in antenatal management and outcome prediction in certain fetal conditions throughout pregnancy.
Xia Li, Li-Feng Liu, Yang-Zhou Liu, et al.
Osteosarcoma is the most frequently occurring solid bone cancer with the second highest cancer-related mortality in pediatric patients. Even though epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 is known to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome, few reports are available regarding its mechanism. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-knockdown U2OS cells inhibit the migration, adhesion, and angiogenesis of co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by diminishing phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt signaling pathway activity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression Background: Even though epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 is known to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome, few reports are available regarding its mechanism.Aims: The objective of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of downregulating epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 expression in a human osteosarcoma cell line on the biological function of co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.Study Design: Cell study.Methods: In the present study, human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, Saos-2, HOS, and MG63, and normal human osteoblasts were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 1x antibiotics at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. Of the four osteosarcoma cell lines, U2OS expresses the highest level of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 mRNA as determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. With the knockdown of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 in U2OS and human umbilical vein endothelial cells by lentivirus, the proliferation and apoptosis of U2OS and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated using MTT and flow cytometry assays. After the co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-knockdown U2OS, the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and the angiogenic ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were detected using MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell, and tube formation assays, respectively. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospho-Akt, total Akt, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were detected using western blot assay.Results: Lentivirus with epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 shRNA could not significantly affect the proliferation and apoptosis of both U2OS and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas the knockdown of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 in U2OS could significantly inhibit the migration, adhesion, and angiogenic ability of co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, the expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospho-Akt, and vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells decreased after co-culturing with epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-knockdown U2OS.Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-knockdown U2OS cells inhibit the migration, adhesion, and angiogenesis of co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by diminishing phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt signaling pathway activity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
Mustafa Erdoğan Cicik, Cezmi Doğan, Osman Şevki Arslan
Development of endophthalmitis during cataract surgery is one of the most severe complications and it may also result in blindness and globe loss. In this retrospective study, patients who had undergone penetrating keratoplasty and for whom phacoemulsification surgery was performed due to cataract and an intracameral ophthalmic cefuroxime solution (Aprokam®) was administered for prophylaxis were evaluated in comparison with patients with cataract without keratoplasty. There was no significant effect of the prophylactic intracameral use of ophthalmic cefuroxime solution (Aprokam®) on the endothelial cells which was used in patients with keratoplasty for whom cataract surgery was performed. Background: Development of endophthalmitis during cataract surgery is one of the most severe complications and it may also result in blindness and globe loss.Aims: To evaluate the effect of an ophthalmic cefuroxime solution (Aprokam®) that is prophylactically used in phacoemulsification surgery performed due to cataract that eventually occurs in patients with or without penetrating keratoplasty.Study Design: Case-control study.Methods: In this retrospective study, patients who had undergone penetrating keratoplasty and for whom phacoemulsification surgery was performed due to cataract and an intracameral ophthalmic cefuroxime solution (Aprokam®) was administered for prophylaxis were evaluated in comparison with patients with cataract without keratoplasty. The following parameters were evaluated: postoperative anterior chamber reaction, intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, corneal endothelial cell density, and central corneal thickness alterations.Results: A total of 42 patients (18 males, 24 females) with keratoplasty and 42 patients (17 males, 25 females) without keratoplasty were included in this study. An increase in visual acuity was observed in all the patients after cataract surgery (p<0.001). The mean corneal endothelial cell densitys were determined to be 2437.20±148.5 cells/mm2 preoperatively in the study group and 2807.1±152.4 cells/mm2 preoperatively in the control group. The mean corneal endothelial cell densitys were determined to be 2103.85±196.5 cells/mm2 after the first postoperative month (p<0.001) in the study group and 2755.92±182.7 cells/mm2 in the control group (p=0.17). The mean central corneal thickness in the study group were 565.78±11.5 μm preoperatively and 584.65±12.7 μm after the first postoperative month (p<0.001). No difference was observed in the control group in terms of preoperative and postoperative central corneal thickness and endothelial cell density. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the intraocular pressure, anterior chamber reaction.Conclusion: There was no significant effect of the prophylactic intracameral use of ophthalmic cefuroxime solution (Aprokam®) on the endothelial cells which was used in patients with keratoplasty for whom cataract surgery was performed.
John Masterson, Busegül Yıldırım, Ece Gökkaya, et al.
In this report it was presented two members of a family with non-syndromic high frequency sensorineural hearing loss who are homozygous for a novel pathogenic SYNE4 variant c.129-1G>T. This case report provides supportive evidence for the causative role of SYNE4 variants in hearing loss by presenting an additional family with a novel DNA variant. Background: Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit with many genetic and environmental underpinnings. While causative DNA variants have been identified in over 100 genes, most deafness-causing variants are rare, apart from a few exceptions. A single SYNE4 variant co-segregating with hearing loss has recently been reported in two Middle-Eastern families. Case Report: In this report we present two members of a family with non-syndromic high frequency sensorineural hearing loss who are homozygous for a novel pathogenic SYNE4 variant c.129-1G>T. Conclusion: This case report provides supportive evidence for the causative role of SYNE4 variants in hearing loss by presenting an additional family with a novel DNA variant.
Camelia Sultana, Ana-Maria Schweitzer, Mihaela Bogdan, et al.
In Romania, as in other Balkan countries with a similar epidemiological background, there is a significant community demand for integrated health programs. Implementation of voluntary counseling and testing can complete the overall regional epidemiological picture and concurrently raise awareness about the importance of early detection of infections.

News from Balkan Medical Journal See All

Professor Dr. Cem Uzun, Editor-at-Large of Balkan Medical Journal, was elected as a Member of the European Association of Science Editors (EASE)  Council at the meeting held on 10 March 2018. For the first time in the history of EASE, founded in 1982, Turkish Scientist was selected for the EASE Council. In his statement on the issue "Our efforts in terms of scientific publications in Turkey and the Balkan countries was an important factor in this appointment. We aim to promote, raise awareness, coordinate and contribute to the development of scientific publishing in the Balkan countries," Professor Uzun said. Professor Uzun will perform this task between 2018 and 2021.
The quality improvement workshop for official journals of Trakya University was held on November 16-17, 2017 at Trakya University. The workshop for editors of eleven journals was conducted in collaboration with the Balkan Medical Journal. The opening speeches were made by Professor Cem Uzun, the president of the workshop and Editor-at-Large of Balkan Medical Journal, and Professor Erhan Tabakoğlu, Rector of Trakya University. Editors of Balkan Medical Journal shared their experiences with other Journal’s editors. Following topics were presented and discussed; How to improve journal quality? (Professor Cem Uzun) Scientific journal management and organization (Professor Zafer Koçak) International scientific publishing standards (Professor Okan Çalıyurt) Relations between Editors and Journal owner (Professor Mustafa İnan) Statistics and good reporting guidelines (Professor Necdet Süt) Publication ethics (Professor Cem Uzun)