ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In a study from Denmark, total 2224 overweight individuals (1504 women, 720 men) followed a low-calorie diet (810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks. The low-calorie diet induced different effects in women than in men, suggesting gender‐specific changes after weight loss. Body weight loss and reductions in a metabolic syndrome score, fat mass, and heart rate were more marked in men compared to women. However, reductions in HDL-cholesterol, hip circumference, lean body mass (or fat free mass), and pulse pressure were larger in women than in men. Source:
Louisa Gibson and Melanie Porter from Australiaaimed to investigate whether drinking or smoking while breastfeeding lowers children’s cognitive scores. They analyzed the data obtained from 5107 Australian infants recruited in 2004 and assessed every 2 years. The authors observed that exposing infants to alcohol through breastmilk may cause dose-dependent reductions in their cognitive abilities. The reduction in cognitive abilities was observed at age 6 to 7 years but was not sustained at age 10 to 11 years. The authors stated that although the relationship is small, it may be clinically significant when mothers consume alcohol regularly or binge drink.  Source:
According to a meta-analysis performed by Clarke MA et al. 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. The authors analyzed data from 40790 unique patients in 129 studies published January 1, 1977, through January 31, 2017. They found that 90% of women with endometrial cancerhave postmenopausal bleeding; however, only 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding were diagnosed with endometrial cancer.  Source:
In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:
In a case-control study in older adults, it was observed a robust association between exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence.  The researchers used a large UK primary care database, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and matched 40,770 older adults with a diagnosis of dementia to 283,933 controls without dementia. Until dementia diagnosis (4 to 20 years), an anticholinergic drug with a high anticholinergic burden (e.g., amitriptyline, paroxetine) were prescribed in 36% of cases and 30% of controls. It was found that increasing exposure to highly anticholinergic drugs was associated with increased dementia risk. The risk was highest with antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs, and urologic drugs. The researchers concluded that "Clinicians should continue to be vigilant with respect to the use of anticholinergic drugs, and should consider the risk of long term cognitive effects, as well as short term effects, associated with specific drug classes when performing their risk-benefit analysis." Source:
In a prospective study conducted on 104,980 participants aged at least 18 years from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2017), a significant increase in overall and breast cancer was associated with an increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet. Source:

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Zafer Koçak, Okan Çalıyurt
In the second half of the year 2018, as a result of depreciation of Turkish lira, we had to reduce the costs of the journal. Being the editorial board, we started looking for an online submission system of comparable quality at a lower cost. After a long-term search by the editorial team and the publisher, we decided that the Manuscript Manager peer review system would meet all our needs.
Cristine Ding, Tarik Tihan
Pilocytic and pilomyxoid astrocytomas are some of the most common gliomas in children and young adults. The genetic characteristics of these neoplasms are well known, and our deepened understanding of their associated molecular alterations has led to the development of novel treatment strategies and approaches. Currently, we can account for some of the unusual behavior, such as oncogene-induced senescence, associated spontaneous regression, anaplastic transformation, and cerebrospinal dissemination, of these gliomas.
Salih Kılıç, Ahmet Çelik, Elif Çekirdekçi, et al.
This is a multi-center observational study that includes 4987 patients using warfarin for any reason, which aims to evaluate the prevalence of the inappropriate combination of aspirin and warfarin therapy in daily practice. The prevalence of combination therapy in patients with a primary indication for mechanical heart valve, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and other reasons was 20.5%, 18.7%, and 21.0%, respectively. Percentages of patients with combination therapy were significantly higher…
Hüseyin Özay, Aslı Çakır, Mustafa Cenk Ecevit
This is a systematic review of the retronasal olfactory test methods. Between 1984 and 2015, 30 original human research articles were included. The retronasal olfaction test, the candy smell test and odorant presentation containers were the most widely used and accepted tests. There were two limitations concerning testing: "the lack concentrations and doses of test materials" and "performing measurements within the supra-threshold zone".
Polliana Mihaela Leru, Vlad Florin Anton
In Romania, the university Internal medicine teaching was replaced by subspecialties by the end of 1990s, and the consequences of this change have not yet been evaluated. The aim of this questionnaire is to assess the current opinion of medical students about internal medicine training and their general educational needs and expectations to draw some suggestions for the improvement of medical university curriculum.

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A 19-month-old boy was born with localized enlargement of the thumb, index finger, and thenar of the right hand, which gradually progressed over time. He had difficulty flexing the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Other fingers of the same hand and all digits of the left hand and feet were…

News from Balkan Medical Journal See All

Balkan Medical Journal follows ICMJE recommendations. The ICMJE require authors to submit a data-sharing statement for randomized clinical trials. Authors must provide a data-sharing notification to indicate whether data will be shared. According to ICMJE “Data sharing statements must indicate the following: whether individual deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared; what data in particular will be shared; whether additional, related documents will be available (e.g., study protocol, statistical analysis plan, etc.); when the data will become available and for how long; by what access criteria data will be shared (including with whom, for what types of analyses, and by what mechanism)” (for details: Balkan Medical Journal require authors to submit a data-sharing statement and register a data-sharing plan when registering a clinical trial on or after Jan 1, 2019.
Balkan Medical Journal is pleased to announce the launch of a new online manuscript Submission system, Manuscript Manager. The Manuscript Manager peer review system is a product of Akron ApS, based in Copenhagen, Denmark. They have more than 15 years of experience in working with peer review software for academic organizations. Some of the benefits of the new system include a user-friendly platform, no requirement of technical support or installation costs, and easy customization for your journal. All processes related to the new article submission and review process should be made through the new online submission system available at For detailed instructions on using Manuscript Manager, please visit the website at