ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In this population-based case-control study, 22,677 cases of rheumatoid arthritis are matched to 90,013 controls, with a median follow-up of 10 years before rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis. The odds of developing rheumatoid arthritis are 60% higher in those exposed to antibiotics than in those not exposed (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.51-1.68). A dose- or frequency-dependent association is observed between the number of previous antibiotic prescriptions and rheumatoid arthritis. Antifungal (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.20-1.35) and antiviral (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.14-1.24) prescriptions are also associated with increased odds of rheumatoid arthritis. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685281/pdf/12916_2019_Article_1394.pdf.
In this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials published published online June 19, 2019 in JAMA cardiology that included more than 83 000 participants, vitamin D supplementation was not associated with reduced risks of major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, or all-cause mortality compared with placebo. These results suggest that vitamin D supplementation may not confer cardiovascular protection and may not be indicated for this purpose. Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2735646
In a study from Denmark, total 2224 overweight individuals (1504 women, 720 men) followed a low-calorie diet (810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks. The low-calorie diet induced different effects in women than in men, suggesting gender‐specific changes after weight loss. Body weight loss and reductions in a metabolic syndrome score, fat mass, and heart rate were more marked in men compared to women. However, reductions in HDL-cholesterol, hip circumference, lean body mass (or fat free mass), and pulse pressure were larger in women than in men. Source:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dom.13466
Louisa Gibson and Melanie Porter from Australiaaimed to investigate whether drinking or smoking while breastfeeding lowers children’s cognitive scores. They analyzed the data obtained from 5107 Australian infants recruited in 2004 and assessed every 2 years. The authors observed that exposing infants to alcohol through breastmilk may cause dose-dependent reductions in their cognitive abilities. The reduction in cognitive abilities was observed at age 6 to 7 years but was not sustained at age 10 to 11 years. The authors stated that although the relationship is small, it may be clinically significant when mothers consume alcohol regularly or binge drink.  Source: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/142/2/e20174266
According to a meta-analysis performed by Clarke MA et al. 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. The authors analyzed data from 40790 unique patients in 129 studies published January 1, 1977, through January 31, 2017. They found that 90% of women with endometrial cancerhave postmenopausal bleeding; however, only 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding were diagnosed with endometrial cancer.  Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2695509
In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/3/e018895

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Berna Arda
Have you ever seen a female figure in Rembrand"s famous Dr. Tulp"s anatomy lesson? Neither the professor who teaches, nor the surroundings, nor the cadaver is a woman. This painting from 1632 is, in fact, quite compatible with reflecting…
Hüseyin Altuğ Çakmak, Mehmet Demir
Circulating miRNAs are promising novel biomarkers for purposes of the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. This review presents detailed information about miRNAs regarding structure and biogenesis, stages of synthesis and functions…
Nian-Fang Lu, Li Jiang, Bo Zhu, et al.
In this cross-sectional study, authors aim to investigate the risk factors of septic cardiomyopathy in 93 septic patients from the intensive care unit. Plasma histones, cardiac troponin I, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were measured using ELISA.
Hasan Arı, Selma Arı, Veysi Can
With this technical note, authors present a novel subcutaneous fat tissue embolization technique for percutaneous nephrolithotomy related bleeding complications. In these two cases, they treat the percutaneous nephrolithotomy related bleeding…
Muhammet Gürdoğan, Ömer Ferudun Akkuş
The letter states that the female gender in the study group mentioned in the Barman"s article is underrepresented (two of three patients are males), which can cause the frequency of Fabry disease to be detected and reported lower than it actually is.

Image Corner

A 47-year-old man with a history of Behçet’s disease is admitted to the cardiology clinic with exertional dyspnea of three months’ duration. His physical examination reveals a blood pressure and heart rate of 120/70 mmHg and 81 bpm, respectively, with normal heart and pulmonary auscultation.

News from Balkan Medical Journal See All

The effort to maintain the editorial freedom has posed distinct challenges arising from regional dynamics in the Balkan region, as in any part of the world. For a journal to be successful in the international arena, reasonably organized managerial processes are required. Clear definitions of work packages, workflows, duties and responsibilities, and assignment and dismissal criteria are essential for the transparency of managerial processes. The journal’s owner, editor-in-chief, editorial board, publisher, and authors effectively communicating with each other within the framework of rules will prevent chaotic and destructive conflicts that may harm the reputation and its mission. The attempt to establish a legal regulation, an agreement between the owner and the editor, and an ombudsman began approximately five years ago for Balkan Medical Journal. Throughout this process, the journal’s management has endeavored to consult the opinions of the journal’s owner and the university legal regulation committee to establish a legal regulation for the journal that is ethical, practical, sustainable, and conforms to the national laws and international scientific values. We believe the journal legal regulation, finalized in January 2019 and presented below, serves as a role model for all scientific circles and the Balkans and will contribute to the advancement of institutional scientific publications of medicine in the region. The journal’s editorial board extends its gratitude to all current and past employees, the Dean’s of the Faculty of Medicine of Trakya University, and to the current rectorate of Trakya University for their valuable contributions and encouragement to building the development of the journal legal regulation to protect editorial freedom and provide successful journal management of all Trakya University scientific journals.  
Balkan Medical Journal follows ICMJE recommendations. The ICMJE require authors to submit a data-sharing statement for randomized clinical trials. Authors must provide a data-sharing notification to indicate whether data will be shared. According to ICMJE “Data sharing statements must indicate the following: whether individual deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared; what data in particular will be shared; whether additional, related documents will be available (e.g., study protocol, statistical analysis plan, etc.); when the data will become available and for how long; by what access criteria data will be shared (including with whom, for what types of analyses, and by what mechanism)” (for details: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html). Balkan Medical Journal require authors to submit a data-sharing statement and register a data-sharing plan when registering a clinical trial on or after Jan 1, 2019.