ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Evaluation of Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations and Acute Neuronal Damage due to Water-Pipe Smoking
Onur Karakayalı1, Uygar Utku2, Serkan Yılmaz1
1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Neurology, İstinye University School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2018.2018.0704
Pages : 106-112

Abstract

Background: Although water-pipe smoking is a great public health problem, data regarding the acute and chronic effects and the degree of toxin exposure are limited. While water pipe-related malignancy, pulmonary, infectious, cardiac effects, infertility, and biological effects have been described in a meta-analysis, there are no studies in the literature about its neurologic effects.
Aims: To evaluate water pipe-related acute neurological effects and cerebral blood flow through transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and serum S100 calcium binding protein calcium binding protein level measurements.
Study Design: Prospective observational study.
Methods: Vital signs and baseline carboxyhemoglobin and S100 calcium binding protein levels, cerebral flood changes with transcranial Doppler ultrasound were evaluated and recorded before and after water-pipe smoking.
Results: The mean age of the 31 volunteers was 30.61 (±5.67) years, and 24 of them (77.42%) were male. A statistically significant difference was determined in heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure values before and after water-pipe smoking (p<0.001, p=0.035, p=0.009, p=0.021, respectively). Mean carboxyhemoglobin level was 2.68% (±1.68) before, 14.97% (±4.83) after water-pipe smoking (p<0.001). The S100 calcium binding protein level was 25.05 μ/mL (±8.34) at the beginning, 40.71 μ/mL (±14.06) after water-pipe smoking (p<0.001). An increase was determined in peak, and median middle, anterior and posterior cerebral artery blood flow rates, and a decrease was determined in both the pulsatility index and resistivity index values after water-pipe smoking using transcranial Doppler ultrasound.
Conclusion: Cerebral vasodilation develops due to the increase in cerebral blood flow rate and the decrease in pulsatility index, resistivity index values, and the elevation in carboxyhemoglobin, S100 calcium binding protein level indicates that water-pipe smoking leads to neuronal damage in the acute period.

Keywords : Acute injury, carboxyhemoglobin, cerebral blood flow, S100 proteins, water pipe smoking
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