ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

MicroRNA and Cardiovascular Diseases
Hüseyin Altuğ Çakmak1, Mehmet Demir2
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2020.1.94

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most common causes of death in both developing and developed countries in the world. Even though improvement in primary prevention, the prevelance of CVD is increasing in recent years. Hence, it is very crucial in both to investigate a molecular pathophysiology of CVD in depth and to find novel biomarkers in terms of early and proper prevention and diagnosis of these diseases. miRNAs is an endogenous, conserved, single-stranded and 21-25 nucleotide in length non-coding RNAs. miRNAs have an important roles in various cellular events such as embryogenesis, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation and tumorigenesis. They also have potential roles in cardiovascular system like as angiogenesis, cardiac cell contractility, control of lipid metabolism, plaque formation, arrangement of cardiac rhythm and cardiac cell growth. Circulating miRNAs are promising novel biomarker for purposes of diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. Cell or tissue specificity, stability in serum or plasma, resistance to degredative factors such as freeze–thaw cycles or enzymes in blood, fast release kinetics, provide potential for miRNAs to be a surrogate marker for early and accurate diagnosis of the disease and for prediction of middle or long term prognosis. Moreover, it can be logical approach combining miRNAs with traditional biomarkers to improve risk stratification and long term prognosis. In addition to efficacy for diagnosis and prognosis, miRNA-based therapeutics may be more beneficial to treat CVD by using novel platforms and computational tools and combining with traditional analysis methods. microRNAs is a promising novel therapeutic agents, which can effect multiple genes by using different signalling pathways. miRNAs therapeutic modulation techniques were used in the settings of atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, restenosis, vascular remodelling, arrythmias, hypertrophy and fibrosis, angio and cardiogenesis, aortic aneursym, pulmonary hypertension and ischemic injury. This review will present a detailed informations about miRNAs in terms of structure and biogenesis, stages of synthesis and functions, expression profiles in serum/plasma of living organisms, diagnostic and prognostic potential as a novel biomarker and theurapeutic applications in various different diseases.

Keywords : Cardiovascular disease, Gene expression, MicroRNAs
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