ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Quantitative Assessment of Salivary Gland Parenchymal Vascularization Using Power Doppler Ultrasound and Superb Microvascular Imaging: A Potential Tool in the Diagnosis of Sjögren"s Syndrome
Fethi Emre Ustabaşıoğlu1, Selçuk Korkmaz2, Ufuk İlgen3, Serdar Solak1, Osman Kula1, Sezin Turan3, Hakan Emmüngil3
1Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
2Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
3Department of Rheumatology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2019.11.91
Pages : 203-207

Abstract

Background: Primary Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Minor salivary gland biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Superb microvascular imaging, power Doppler ultrasound, and color Doppler of the salivary glands represent non-invasive, non-irradiating modality for evaluating the vascularity of the salivary glands in the diagnosis and follow-up of primary Sjögren’s syndrome.
Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of superb microvascular imaging and vascularity index in salivary glands for the sonographic diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome.
Study Design: Prospective case-control study.
Methods: Twenty participants with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Both parotid glands and submandibular glands were evaluated by superb microvascular imaging, power Doppler ultrasound, and color Doppler. The diagnostic accuracy of superb microvascular imaging was compared using these techniques.
Results: In the patient group, the vascularity index values of superb microvascular imaging in parotid glands and submandibular glands were 3.5±1.66, 5.06±1.94, respectively. While the same values were 1.0±0.98 and 2.44±1.34 in the control group (p≤0.001). In the patient group, the vascularity index values of power Doppler ultrasound in parotid glands and submandibular glands were 1.3±1.20 and 2.59±1.82, respectively. While the same values were 0.3±0.32 and 0.85±0.68 in the control group (p≤0.001). The superb microvascular imaging vascularity index cut-off value for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in parotid glands that maximizes the accuracy was 1.85 (area under the curve: 0.906; 95% confidence interval: 0.844, 0.968), and its sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 72.5%, respectively. While the superb microvascular imaging vascularity index cut-off value for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in submandibular gland that maximizes the accuracy was 3.35 (area under the curve: 0.873; 95% confidence interval: 0.800, 0.946), its sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 70%, respectively.
Conclusion: Superb microvascular imaging with high reproducibility of the vascularity index has a higher sensitivity and specificity than the power Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. It can be a noninvasive technique in the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome when used with clinical, laboratory and other imaging methods.

Keywords : Power Doppler ultrasound, primary Sjögren
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