ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

History of Islamic Medical Schools in Turkey"s Territory
Selman Çıkmaz1, Recep Mesut2
1Department of Anatomy, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey
2Emeritus Prof. Dr., Edirne, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2020.4.160

In today's political borders of the Republic of Turkey there exists very old institutions that train physicians according to Islamic medical science. In this study, 19 health institutions, whose locations have been determined and documents have been finalized, are approached in chronological order and classified according to historical periods: XIIth-XIIIth centuries (Seljukian period) - 10; XIVth century (Ilkhanate dominion) - 1; XVth-XVIIth centuries (Ottoman period) - 8 institutions. Some of them have a history of 900 years (Konya Maristan-ı Atik, 1113; Mardin Eminüddin Bimaristanı, 1122). Some of them are in the form of a medical madrasah and an application hospital (Kayseri, 1206; Sivas, 1217). In these institutions, great masters of Islamic medicine (Razi, Farabi, Biruni, İbni Sina) and ancient authorities (Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Aretaeus, Galenos) were taught. They had builders, rulers (sultan, melik) or mothers, wives, daughters, sisters (the presence of female builders in 6 institutions attracts attention). Powerful viziers also built such institutions during the Seljuk period. Free health services were provided in these hospitals, which are accepted as "charities" according to the religion of Islam. The financing of the institutions was obtained from the sources of income donated via the "foundation" method (shops, inns, Turkish baths, bridges, mills, vineyards, gardens, fields and annual taxes of many villages). Donations were made in front of the witnesses in the presence of the "kadi" (muslim judges) with the written document "endowment" and subsequent monarchs did not touch these foundations. The board of trustees met the fees and daily expenses of physicians and assistant personnel and repaired the buildings. 12 of these institutions are still in use for public interest (polyclinic, museum, health museum, library, university, education center). When modern medical schools (1827) and hospitals (1842) began to be established as of the XIXth century, these historical buildings were allocated to mental patients, some of them were devastated by neglect. In the Republic period, they have been restored and used for health and educational purposes.

Keywords : medical history, Islamic physician training institutions, Islamic foundations, historical hospital buildings
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