ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Molecular Determining of HIV-1 with the Presence of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infections
Murat Sayan1,2, Müge Özgüler3, Figen Sarıgül Yıldırım4, Taner Yıldırmak5, Alper Gündüz6, Başak Dokuzoğuz7, Mustafa Kemal Çelen8, Dilara İnan9, Yasemin Heper10, Gülden Ersöz11, İlkay Karaoğlan12, Nurgül Ceran13, Aydın Deveci14, Servet Özturk15, Selda Sayın Kutlu16, Hülya Özkan Özdemir17, Ayhan Akbulut18, Saadet Yazıcı19, Alper Şener20, Atahan Çağatay21, Serhat Ünal22
1Kocaeli University, School of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory, PCR Unit, Kocaeli, Turkey
2Near East University, Research Center of Experimental Health Sciences, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus
3Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology University of Health Sciences, Elazığ Fethi Sekin City Hospital, Elazığ, Turkey
4Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology University of Health Sciences Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey
5Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
6Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology University of Health Sciences Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
7Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
8Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakır, Turkey
9Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Akdeniz University, School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
10Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
11Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Mersin University School of Medicine, Mersin Turkey
12Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey
13Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
14Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey
15Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
16Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
17Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey
18Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Fırat University School of Medicine, Elazığ, Turkey
19Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medeniyet University, Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
20Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Onsekiz Mart University School of Medicine, Çanakkale, Turkey
21Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, İstanbul University School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
22Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2019.5.89

Background: Because of the similar modes of transmission, simultaneous infection of viral hepatitis and HIV increasingly seen as a big problem related to humanity health.
Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the drug mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected HIV-1 patients in Turkey.
Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Methods: The present was conducted between 2010 and 2017. HBsAg, Anti HCV and anti-HIV were tested with ELISA. All anti-HIV positive results by ELISA were verified for anti-HIV positivity by Western blot test, and Anti-HIV positive patients with HBsAg and/or Anti HCV positivity were included in the study. Subtyping and genotypic resistance analysis were performed by population sequencing of the viral protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the HIV-1 pol gene.
Results: We detected a total of 3,896 HIV-1 positive patients that their sera were sent from numerous hospitals across the country to PCR Unit for detection of drug resistance mutations and whose molecular laboratory tests were completed. The viral hepatitis co-infections were detected in 4.3% (n=170) in total and HBV and HCV co-infections were observed in 3.2% and 0.5% of all HIV-1 infected patients, respectively. Major HIV-1 subtypes were detected as a group M, subtype B (62.9%). However, 13.5% drug resistance mutation motifs were found in HIV-1 genomes of the patients that included to study.
Conclusions: In conclusion, because of similar transmission routes HIV positive patients have a risk for HBV and HCV co-infections. However, the ART drug resistance mutation pattern is observed to be similar with patients who are HBV and/or HCV negative. Patients with HIV-1 and their viral hepatitis co-infections should be recommended for careful surveillance.

Keywords : HIV-1, coinfection, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, molecular epidemiology

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