ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Premature Coronary Artery Disease due to Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in a 12-Year-Old Girl
Filiz Ekici1, Salih Özçobanoğlu2, Fırat Kardelen3
1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
3Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.2017.0490
Pages : 208-211


Background: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited metabolic disease caused by low-density lipoprotein receptor abnormality. Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have an increased risk of cardiovascular complication that usually occurs in the first decade of life. Here, we report a 12-year-old girl with an unpredicted presentation for coronary artery disease and found to have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Case Report: A 12-year-old girl was admitted to our unit with syncope. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse pneumonic consolidation and mild cardiomegaly. We detected stable ST depression by electrocardiography. Echocardiography showed normal systolic functions. Troponin-1 levels were high (66 mcg/dL, upper limit: 0.04 mcg/dL). Influenza A virus DNA was detected by the respiratory viral panel. After her successful treatment for acute pneumonia and myocarditis due to Influenza A virus, her syncope attacks persisted. Marked ST elevation was observed during exercise electrocardiography. Coronary angiography showed severe occlusions in the coronary arteries. High serum levels of total cholesterol (756 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein-C (556 mg/dL) were noticed. She had no tendon xanthomas. Medical histories revealed that her family members were diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. A coronary bypass surgery was performed. Statin and ezetimibe treatments were started. We also planned lipid apheresis.
Conclusion: Children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia may present with symptoms of premature coronary heart disease requiring a routine lipid test and careful anamnesis.

Keywords : Premature coronary artery disease, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, children, coronary surgery
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