ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Cord Blood Hematological Parameters of Fetuses Detected Different Thalassemia Genotypes in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
Ebru Dündar Yenilmez1, Abdullah Tuli1
1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2023.2023-1-86
Pages : 279-286

Abstract

Background: Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in humans resulting from impaired globin chain synthesis of hemoglobin. The progression of thalassemia rates is prevented with prenatal screening methods.
Aims: To evaluate the hematological parameters of α- and β-thalassemia and normal fetuses aged 17-25 weeks of gestation.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study.
Methods: Pregnant women who underwent cordocentesis in the second trimester because of the risk of having a baby with thalassemia were included in the study. Hematological indices and molecular DNA methods were analyzed from the cord blood samples of 129 women who were 17-25 weeks into pregnancy. The HPLC method was used for Hb fraction analysis. Amplification refractory mutation system, restriction enzyme analysis, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing methods were used for the molecular analysis. Maternal contamination was eliminated by the short tandem repeat method.
Results: In total, 112 of the fetuses carry α- and β-thalassemia heterozygous or homozygous (α: 37, β: 58, mixed: 17)   and 17 fetuses had a normal genotype for thalassemia. Significant differences in adult hemoglobin (HbA), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), Hb Barts, MCV, MCH, and RDW were detected in three groups compared with the normal group (p < 0.001, except for RBC, Hb, HCT, and MCHC). Differences in HbF, Hb Barts, MCV, MCH, and RDW were observed in the α-thalassemia groups compared with the normal group (p < 0.001). Among the five β-thalassemia subgroups, only HbA and RDW were different from the normal group (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study could be a good reference for future studies and prenatal diagnostic applications in emphasizing the importance of changes in the blood parameters of fetuses before molecular genotyping. These hematological data give valuable information to clinicians about the fetus to enlighten families in making appropriate decisions during prenatal diagnosis.

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