ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Molecular Identification of HIV-1 in the Presence of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infections
Murat Sayan1,2, Müge Özgüler3, Figen Sarıgül Yıldırım4, Taner Yıldırmak5, Alper Gündüz6, Başak Dokuzoğuz7, Mustafa Kemal Çelen8, Dilara İnan9, Yasemin Heper10, Gülden Ersöz11, İlkay Karaoğlan12, Nurgül Ceran13, Aydın Deveci14, Servet Öztürk15, Selda Sayın Kutlu16, Hülya Özkan Özdemir17, Ayhan Akbulut18, Saadet Yazıcı19, Alper Şener20, Atahan Çağatay21, Serhat Ünal22
1Clinical Laboratory, PCR Unit, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey
2Research Center of Experimental, Health Sciences Near East University, Northern Cyprus
3Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Elazığ Fethi Sekin City Hospital, Elazığ, Turkey
4Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey
5Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
6Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
7Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
8Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakır, Turkey
9Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
10Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
11Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Mersin University School of Medicine, Mersin Turkey
12Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey
13Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
14Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey
15Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
16Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
17Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences, Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey
18Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Fırat University School of Medicine, Elazığ, Turkey
19Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medeniyet University, Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
20Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Onsekiz Mart University School of Medicine, Çanakkale, Turkey
21Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, İstanbul University School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
22Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2019.5.89
Pages : 125-130

Abstract

Background: Because of their similar modes of transmission, the simultaneous infection of viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus are increasingly seen as a big problem related to human health.
Aims: To determine the drug mutations in hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus co-infected human immunodeficiency virus-1 patients in Turkey.
Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Methods: The present study was conducted between 2010 and 2017. HBsAg, anti-hepatitis C virus, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus were tested with ELISA. All anti-human immunodeficiency virus positive results by ELISA were verified for anti-human immunodeficiency virus positivity by a Western blot test, and Anti-human immunodeficiency virus positive patients with HBsAg and/or anti-hepatitis C virus positivity were included in the study. Subtyping and genotypic resistance analyses were performed by population sequencing of the viral protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 pol gene.
Results: We detected 3896 human immunodeficiency virus-1 positive patients whose sera were sent from numerous hospitals across the country to our polymerase chain reaction unit for detection of drug resistance mutations and whose molecular laboratory tests were completed. Viral hepatitis co-infections were detected in 4.3% (n=170) of patients. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection were observed in 3.2% and 0.5% of all human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients, respectively. The major human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype detected was group M, subtype B (62.9%). However, 13.5% of drug resistance mutation motifs were found in human immunodeficiency virus-1 genomes of patients included in the study.
Conclusion: Due to similar transmission routes, HIV1 patients are at risk of hepatitis B and C virus co-infection. However, antiretroviral drug resistance mutation model is similar to patients with hepatitis negative.

Keywords : Co-infection, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, molecular epidemiology
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