ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study
Servet Kesim 1, Betül Çiçek 2, Cüneyt Asım Aral 3, Ahmet Öztürk 4, Mümtaz Mustafa Mazıcıoğlu 5, Selim Kurtoğlu 6
1Department of Periodontology, Erciyes University School of Dentistry, Kayseri, Turkey
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Erciyes University School of Health Sciences, Kayseri, Turkey
3Department of Periodontology, Şifa University School of Dentistry, İzmir, Turkey
4Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
5Department of Family Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
6Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
DOI : 10.5152/balkanmedj.2016.16699
Pages : 164-172

Abstract

Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample.

Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed.  

Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (p<0.05). Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05). In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05). According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05). According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (p<0.05). According to CPI, significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups at the age of 16 (boys only) and 17 (girls only) were seen (p<0.05). 

Conclusion: Periodontal and dental status appears to correlate with nutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene.

Keywords : Adolescents, children, nutrition, obesity
Viewed : 1199
Downloaded : 602