ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Empyema due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotype 9V in a Child Immunized with 13-Valent Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccine
Murat Sütçü 1, Hacer Aktürk 1, Fatih Karagözlü 1, Ayper Somer 1, Nezahat Gürler 2, Nuran Salman 1
1Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, İstanbul University İstanbul School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
2Department of Clinical Microbiology, İstanbul University İstanbul School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.2015.0937
Pages : 74-77

Abstract

Background: Clinical vaccine failure is the occurence of the specific vaccine-preventable disease in an appropriately and fully vaccinated person after enough time has elapsed for protection against the antigens of the vaccine to develop. Fully immunized cases with pneumoccal vaccine may sometimes develop a complicated pneumonia with empyema caused by a vaccine serotype.
Case Report: A 2 year-old male patient was admitted with the complaints of fever. On the basis of findings and laboratory results, the patient was diagnosed as having empyema. He was successfully treated with parenteral antibiotics and chest tube drainage. The pleural fluid culture and hemoculture of the patient yielded penicillin-susceptible pneumococci and the isolate was identified as serotype 9V. The patient had been vaccinated with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine according to the Turkish national immunization schedule at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. His medical history and basic immunological profile were inconsistent with a primary immunodeficiency.
Conclusion: The failure of the PCV13 vaccine may results in a complicated pneumonia with empyema. It is important to investigate serotypes of pneumococci in these cases to determine other possible vaccine failures due to PCV13 and to study the underlying mechanisms.

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Keywords : Empyema, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
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