ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder in Pediatric Patient: Four Case Series and Review of the Literature
Murat Uçar1, Metin Demirkaya2, Berna Aytaç Vuruşkan3, Emin Balkan1, Nizamettin Kılıç1
1Division of Pediatric Urology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
2Division of Pediatric Oncology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
3Department of Pathology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.2017.1292

Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of bladder is a rare condition in children. Majority of the cases are non-invasive and low grade in this age group. However, there is no follow-up protocol defined for this patient group. The objective of this study is to draw attention to childhood bladder tumors and focus on current recommendations for postoperative follow-up together with our experience with four cases.
Case Report: A total of 4 cases aged under the age of 18, who were treated in our clinics between 2001 and 2015 with the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. The results were compared with published pediatric case series in the literature. No abnormality was found in physical examination and laboratory analysis of the patients except hematuria (microscopic or macroscopic). Ultrasonography (USG) was used in all patients for detection of the leison in the bladder. The surgical resections were performed endoscopically except one patient. Histopathological evaluations were reported as low grade superficial urothelial carcinoma. Postoperative follow-up included urinalysis, USG and cystoscopy. No recurrence or complication was observed at follow-up of the patients.
Conclusion: Although rarely seen in childhood, UC should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with hematuria. These non-invasive and low-grade tumors can easily be detected with USG. Endoscopic resection is the first and most important treatment option. The prognosis is extremely good with low recurrence rates. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy are sufficient for follow-up.

Keywords : Bladder, children, hematuria, ultrasonography, urothelial carcinoma
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