ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Single Institutional Experience with GM1 Gangliosidosis: Clinical and Laboratory Results of 14 Patients
Halil Tuna Akar1, Yılmaz Yıldız1, Gökhan Güvenkaya2, Kısmet Çıkı1, Ayça Burcu Kahraman1, İzzet Erdal1, Turgay Coşkun1, Ali Dursun1, Hatice Serap Sivri1, Ayşegül Tokatlı1
1Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Metabolism Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2022.2022-3-75
Pages : 345-350

Abstract

Background: GM1 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by biallelic mutations in the GLB1 gene. Neurodegeneration, hypotonia, visceromegaly, macular cherry-red spots, skeletal dysplasia, and coarse and dysmorphic face are the major clinical features.
Aims: To evaluate the demographic and clinical data of patients with GM1 gangliosidosis in a single center.
Study Design: A retrospective clinical study.
Methods: This study included patients followed at Hacettepe University İhsan Doğramacı Children’s Hospital Pediatric Metabolism Unit with the diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis between 1988 and 2021. Hospital records of the patients were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings.
Results: Fourteen patients were included in the study and 10 (71.4%) were male. The age at onset of clinical symptoms was between 0 and 5 months, and the median time to diagnosis after the first symptom was 4.3 (0-13) months. Motor delay (54%) was the most common initial symptom. The median follow-up period was 14.8 (0.4-92.2) months. Twelve patients (85.7%) died, and all deaths occurred before the age of 24 months. The median survival was 21.3 (95% confidence interval, 15.5-24.9) months. Higher leukocyte beta-galactosidase activity correlated with later age at onset (ρ = 0.575), later age at diagnosis (ρ = 0.618), and longer diagnostic delay (ρ = 0.702) (ρ < 0.05).
Conclusion: Median survival in patients with GM1 gangliosidosis is less than 24 months. Beta-galactosidase enzyme activity may be associated with clinical onset and time of diagnosis in these patients.

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