ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Exploring Regional Disparities in Heart Failure Epidemiology and Outcomes: A Comprehensive Study Across Geographical Regions in Türkiye
Anıl Şahin1, Tuğçe Çöllüoğlu2, Ahmet Çelik3, Naim Ata4, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz5, Dilek Ural6, Arzu Kanık7, Mustafa Okan Ayvalı4, Mustafa Mahir Ülgü4, Şuayip Birinci8
1Department of Cardiology, Sivas Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, Türkiye
2Department of Cardiology, Karabük University Faculty of Medicine, Karabük, Türkiye
3Department of Cardiology, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Türkiye
4General Directorate of Health Information Systems, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Türkiye
5Department of Cardiology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Türkiye
6Department of Cardiology, Koç University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Türkiye
7Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Türkiye
8Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Health, Ankara, Türkiye
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2023.2023-10-5
Pages : 47-53


Background: Heart failure (HF) is a common condition that affects 1-3% of the general population. Its prevalence exhibits notable international and intranational disparities, partly explained by socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic diversity, and geographic factors. A comprehensive understanding of the epidemiological symptoms of HF in different regions of Türkiye has yet to be revealed.
Aims: To examine epidemiological data from 2016 to 2022, focusing on crucial patient characteristics and geographical regions, to determine the incidence and prevalence of HF in Türkiye across seven diverse geographical regions.
Study Design: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.
Methods: The comprehensive National Electronic Database of the Turkish Ministry of Health was used in this study to obtain data that covers the whole Turkish population from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2022. The International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) codes were used to identify adults with HF (n = 2,701,099) and associated comorbidities. Türkiye is divided into seven geographically distinct regions. Epidemiological characteristics and survival data of these regions were analyzed separately. All-cause mortality was set as the primary outcome.
Results: In , the total estimated prevalence of adult patients with HF is 2.939%, ranging from 2.442% in Southeastern Anatolia to 4.382% in the Black Sea Region. Except for the Eastern Anatolia Region, the three most often reported comorbidities were hypertension, dyslipidemia, and anxiety disorders. The rates of prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for HF and other medications varied significantly. GDMT prescription rates were lowest in the Eastern Anatolia Region (82.6% for beta-blockers, 48.7% for RASi, 31.8% for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and 9.4% for SGLT2i). The Mediterranean and Aegean regions had the highest median N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels of 1,990,0 pg/ml (518.0-6,636,0) and 1,441,0 pg/ml (363.0-5,000,0), respectively. From 2016 to 2022, 915,897 (33.9%) of 2,701,099 patients died. The Eastern Anatolia Region had the lowest all-cause mortality rate of 26.5%, whereas the Black Sea Region had the highest all-cause mortality rate of 35.3%.
Conclusion: Our real-world analysis revealed geographic disparities in HF characteristics, such as decreased mortality in socioeconomically challenged regions. Higher stress susceptibility in developed regions may increase the likelihood of adverse outcomes.

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