ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Burden and Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in the Middle East and North Africa from 1990 to 2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study
Mohammad Effatpanah1, Amin Nakhostin-Ansari2, Fateme Gorgani3, Samaneh Tanhapour Khotbehsara4, Shakiba Seifi5, Hadis Nasoori6, Amir Hossein Memari2, Seyed Reza Darijani7
1Research Center for War-Affected People, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Clinical Research Development Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
6Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
7Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Tehran, Iran
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2024.2023-11-55
Pages : 121-129

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have mainly focused on individual mental disorders, and there is no study addressing the total burden of mental disorders in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).
Aims: To evaluate the burden of mental disorders in the MENA region from 1990 to 2019.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study.
Methods: We utilized global burden of disease data to examine the burden of 12 mental disorders from 1990 to 2019 across age groups, genders, and the 21 MENA countries. We collected data on prevalence, incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), including both crude and age-standardized rates per 100,000 people.
Results: The DALY rate of mental disorders in MENA countries increased by 13.88% from 1,747.92 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 1990.5 per 100,000 people in 2019. The highest percentage increases in the DALY rates of mental disorders were observed for bulimia nervosa (35.69%), other mental health disorders (34.58%), and schizophrenia (33.02%) from 1990 to 2019. However, the DALY rates for idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (-26.48%), conduct disorder (-23.91%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (-16.46%), and autism spectrum disorders (-4.12%) decreased in the MENA region from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, the highest DALY rates for idiopathic developmental intellectual disability, anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder were observed in age groups ≤ 4 years, 5-19 years, and ≥ 20 years, respectively. The age-standardized DALY rate of mental disorders was the highest in Palestine (2,396.9 per 100,000), Iran (2,295.8 per 100,000), and Lebanon (2,126.0 per 100,000) compared with other MENA countries in 2019.
Conclusion: There has been a slight increase in the burden of mental disorders in the MENA region between 1990 and 2019. National policies should prioritize evidence-based preventive measures and ensure accessible treatment options for mental health disorders in the population, especially in the MENA region.

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