ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Burden and Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in the Middle East and North Africa from 1990 to 2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study
Mohammad Effatpanah1, Amin Nakhostin-Ansari2, Fateme Gorgani3, Samaneh Tanhapour Khotbehsara4, Shakiba Seifi5, Hadis Nasoori6, Amir Hossein Memari2, Seyed Reza Darijani7
1Research Center for War-Affected People, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Clinical Research Development Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
6Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
7Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Tehran, Iran
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2024.2023-11-55

Background: Previous studies have mainly focused on individual mentaldisorders, and there is no study addressing the total burden of mentaldisorders in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).
Aims: This study evaluated the burden of mental disorders in the MENAregion from 1990 to 2019.
Study Design: Epidemiological.
Methods: We utilized global burden of disease data to examine theburden of 12 mental disorders from 1990 to 2019 across age groups,genders, and the 21 MENA countries. We collected data on prevalence,incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, anddisability-adjusted life-years (DALY), including both crude and agestandardizedrates per 100,000 people.
Results: The DALY rate of mental disorders in MENA countries increasedby 13.88% from 1,747.92 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 1990.5 per100,000 people in 2019. The highest percentage increases in the DALYrates of mental disorders were observed for bulimia nervosa (35.69%),other mental health disorders (34.58%), and schizophrenia (33.02%) from1990 to 2019. However, the DALY rates for idiopathic developmentalintellectual disability (-26.48%), conduct disorder (-23.91%), attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (-16.46%), and autism spectrum disorders(-4.12%) decreased in the MENA region from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, thehighest DALY rates for idiopathic developmental intellectual disability,anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder were observed inage groups ≤ 4 years, 5-19 years, and ≥ 20 years, respectively. The agestandardizedDALY rate of mental disorders was the highest in Palestine(2,396.9 per 100,000), Iran (2,295.8 per 100,000), and Lebanon (2,126.0per 100,000) compared with other MENA countries in 2019.
Conclusion: There has been a slight increase in the burden of mentaldisorders in the MENA region between 1990 and 2019. Our researchfindings strongly reinforce the view that mental conditions should berecognized as a central health challenge in the 21st century. Consequently,national policies must prioritize evidence-based preventive measuresand ensure accessible treatment options for mental health disorderswithin the population, especially in the MENA region.

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